Advanced BioTech For BIOREMEDIATION
Liquid Optimizer Plus – (Additional Odor Neutralizers)
General Blend Microbes
Hydrocarbon Digester Microbes
areas with major odor issues and odor complaints.
Replace # 35XXX with 55XXX
/ Petrochemical Bioremediation Products
to degrade petroleum and refined hydrocarbon fractions, refinery wastewaters
plus many industrial waste materials.
for soils, rivers, oceans, groundwater, concrete and industrial facilities.
these compounds and Industrial waste materials:
“C” Fuels Oil
of Petroleum Oils
of crude oils and refined petroleum products in a release situation is one of
the earliest response tasks that must be undertaken. Proper classification and
an understanding of the chemical and physical properties of these substances
helps determine the hazard to personnel and wildlife, the effects that may be
observed on adjacent shorelines or estuaries (for spills into water), and the
form a response should take. Non-petroleum-based oils also pose a potential
threat to human health and the environment. This discussion focuses only on
crude oils and refined products; non-petroleum oils are discussed elsewhere.
oils and refined petroleum products consist largely of hydrocarbons, which are
chemicals composed solely of hydrogen and carbon in various molecular
arrangements. Crude oils contain hundreds of different hydrocarbons and other
organic and inorganic substances including atoms of sulfur, nitrogen, and
oxygen, as well as metals such as iron, vanadium, nickel, and chromium.
Collectively, these other atoms are called heteroatoms. Certain heavy crude oils
from younger geologic formations (e.g., Venezuelan crudes) contain less than 50
percent hydrocarbons and a higher proportion of organic and inorganic substances
containing heteroatoms. The refining process removes many of the chemicals
containing these heteroatoms. All crudes contain lighter fractions similar to
gasoline as well as heavier tar or wax constituents, and may vary in consistency
from a light volatile fluid to a semi-solid.
products used for motor fuels are essentially a complex mixture of hydrocarbons.
Gasolines are mixtures of hydrocarbons that contain 4 to 12 carbon atoms and
have boiling points between 30 and 210 degrees Celsius. Kerosenes used for jet
fuel contain hydrocarbons with 10 to 16 carbon atoms and have boiling points
150 and 240. Diesel fuels and bunkering fuels contain hydrocarbons with higher
numbers of carbon atoms and higher boiling points. In addition, diesel fuels and
bunkering fuels have greater proportions of compounds containing heteroatoms.
release, the hydrocarbons that are composed of fewer carbon and hydrogen atoms
vaporize, leaving behind a heavier, less volatile fraction. Gasolines contain
relatively high proportions of toxic and volatile hydrocarbons, such as benzene,
which is known to cause cancer in humans, and hexane, which can affect the
nervous system. Gasoline and kerosene releases are exceptionally hazardous due
to their high flammability. Crude oils and semi-refined products, such as diesel
and bunkering oils, may contain cancer-causing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons
and other toxic substances.
oil describes a broad range of natural hydrocarbon-based substances and refined
petroleum products, each having a different chemical composition. As a result,
each type of crude oil and refined product has distinct physical properties that
affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, the hazard it may pose to marine and
human life, and the likelihood that it will pose a threat to natural and
man-made resources. For example, light refined products, such as gasoline and
kerosene, spread on water surfaces and penetrate porous soils quickly. Fire and
toxic hazards are high, but the products evaporate quickly and leave little
residue. Alternatively, heavier refined oil products may pose a lesser fire and
toxic hazard and do not spread on water as readily. Heavier oils are more
persistent, however, and may present a greater remediation challenge.
rate at which an oil spill spreads will determine its effect on the environment.
Most oils tend to spread horizontally into a smooth and slippery surface, called
a slick, on top of the water. Factors which affect the ability of an oil
spill to spread include surface tension, specific gravity, and viscosity.
tension is the measure of
attraction between the surface molecules of a liquid. The higher the oil's
surface tension, the more likely a spill will remain in place. If the
surface tension of the oil is low, the oil will spread even without help
from wind and water currents. Because increased temperatures can reduce a
liquid's surface tension, oil is more likely to spread in warmer waters than
in very cold waters.
gravity is the density of a
substance compared to the density of water. Since most oils are lighter than
water, they lie flat on top of it. However, the specific gravity of an oil
spill can increase if the lighter substances within the oil evaporate.
Viscosity is the measure of a liquid's resistance to flow. The higher the
viscosity of the oil, the greater the tendency for it to stay in one place.
of Crude Oil
petroleum industry often characterizes crude oils according to their
geographical source, e.g., Alaska North Slope Crude. Oils from different
geographical areas have unique properties; they can vary in consistency from a
light volatile fluid to a semi-solid. Classification of crude oil types by
geographical source is generally not a useful classification scheme for response
personnel because they offer little information about general toxicity, physical
state, and changes that occur with time and weathering. These characteristics
are primary considerations in oil spill response. The classification scheme
provided below is more useful in a response scenario.
A: Light, Volatile Oils. These
oils are highly fluid, often clear, spread rapidly on solid or water surfaces,
have a strong odor, a high evaporation rate, and are usually flammable. They
penetrate porous surfaces such as dirt and sand, and may be persistent in such a
matrix. They do not tend to adhere to surfaces; flushing with water generally
removes them. Class A oils may be highly toxic to humans, fish, and other biota.
Most refined products and many of the highest quality light crudes can be
included in this class.
B: Non-Sticky Oils. These
oils have a waxy or oily feel. Class B oils are less toxic and adhere more
firmly to surfaces than Class A oils, although they can be removed from surfaces
by vigorous flushing. As temperatures rise, their tendency to penetrate porous
substrates increases and they can be persistent. Evaporation of volatiles may
lead to a Class C or D residue. Medium to heavy paraffin-based oils fall into
C: Heavy, Sticky Oils. Class
C oils are characteristically viscous, sticky or tarry, and brown or black.
with water will not
readily remove this material from surfaces, but the oil does not readily
penetrate porous surfaces. The density of Class C oils may be near that of water
and they often sink. Weathering or evaporation of volatiles may produce solid or
tarry Class D oil. Toxicity is low, but wildlife can be smothered or drowned
when contaminated. This class includes residual fuel oils and medium to heavy
D: Nonfluid Oils. Class
D oils are relatively non-toxic, do not penetrate porous substrates, and are
usually black or dark brown in color. When heated, Class D oils may melt and
coat surfaces making cleanup very difficult. Residual oils, heavy crude oils,
some high paraffin oils, and some weathered oils fall into this class.
classifications are dynamic for spilled oils; weather conditions and water
temperature greatly influence the behavior of oil and refined petroleum products
in the environment. For example, as volatiles evaporate from a Class B oil, it
may become a Class C oil. If a significant temperature drop occurs (e.g., at
night), a Class C oil may solidify and resemble a Class D oil. Upon warming, the
Class D oil may revert back to a Class C oil.
of Refined Petroleum Products
petroleum products are derived from crude oils through processes such as
catalytic cracking and fractional distillation. These products have physical and
chemical characteristics that differ according to the type of crude oil and
subsequent refining processes. Several examples of refined petroleum products
and their properties include:
a lightweight material that flows easily, spreads quickly, and
may evaporate completely in a few hours under temperate conditions. It poses a
risk of fire and explosion because of its high volatility and flammability, and
is more toxic than crude oil. Gasoline is amenable to biodegradation, but the
use of dispersants is not appropriate unless the vapors pose a significant human
health or safety hazard.
a lightweight material that flows easily, spreads rapidly, and
evaporates quickly. Kerosene is easily dispersed, but is also relatively
persistent in the environment.
2 Fuel Oil, a
lightweight material that flows easily, spreads quickly, and is easily
dispersed. This fuel oil is neither volatile nor likely to form emulsions, and
is relatively non-persistent in the environment.
4 Fuel Oil, a
mediumweight material that flows easily, and is easily dispersed if treated
promptly. This fuel oil has a low volatility and moderate flash point, and is
fairly persistent in the environment.
5 Fuel Oil (Bunker B), a
mediumweight to heavyweight material with a low volatility and moderate flash
point. Preheating may be necessary in cold climates, and this fuel oil is
difficult, if not impossible, to disperse.
6 Fuel Oil (Bunker C), a
heavyweight material that is difficult to pump and requires preheating for use.
This fuel oil may be heavier than water, is not likely to dissolve, is difficult
or impossible to disperse, and is likely to form tar balls, lumps, and
emulsions. It has a low volatility and moderate flash point.
Oil, a mediumweight
material that flows easily and is easily dispersed if treated promptly. This oil
has a low volatility and moderate flash point, but is fairly persistent in the
interprets the Clean Water Act definition of oil to include non-petroleum oils
as well as petroleum and petroleum-refined products. Non-petroleum oils include
synthetic oils, such as silicone fluids, tung oils, and wood-derivative oils,
such as resin/rosin oils, animal fats and oil, and edible and inedible seed oils
non-petroleum oils have similar physical properties as petroleum-based oils; for
example, their solubility in water is limited, they both create slicks on the
surface of water, and they both form emulsions and sludges. In addition,
non-petroleum oils tend to be persistent, remaining in the environment for long
periods of time.
petroleum-based oils, non-petroleum oils can have both immediate and long-term
adverse effects on the environment and can be dangerous or even deadly to
wildlife. For example, non-petroleum oils can deplete available oxygen needed by
aquatic organisms, foul aquatic biota, and coat the fur and/or feathers of
wildlife. For example, when a bird's plumage is coated with non-petroleum oil,
their feathers lose their insulating properties, placing them at risk of
freezing to death. Birds that are covered with non-petroleum oils also can
smother embryos through the transfer of non-petroleum oil from the parents'
plumage to the eggs. Birds and wildlife can ingest oil directly and may continue
to ingest the oil as they eat if the source of their food consists of fish,
shellfish, or vegetation that also are contaminated with non-petroleum oils.
Other adverse effects of spilled non-petroleum oil on bird and wildlife include
drowning, mortality by predation, dehydration, starvation, and/or suffocation.
Oils and Animal Fats
the Clean Water Act, as amended by the Oil Pollution Act of 1990, vegetable oils
and animal fats are considered oils. This summary provides information on EPA's
decision to deny a petition of several agricultural trade organizations to allow
facilities that store vegetable oils or animal fats to use different and less
stringent response methods in planning for spills of these oils under the
Facility Response Plan (FRP) rule (40 CFR 112.20-.21;
July 1, 1994
). The FRP rule requires certain facilities,
whose discharge could cause significant environmental harm, to prepare and
implement response plans. The EPA FRP rule already provides greater flexibility
to vegetable oil or animal fat facilities in the development of these plans than
what is required for petroleum facilities.
on information provided by industry, only a small number (approximately 50 to
100) of vegetable oil or animal fat storage facilities are required to prepare
FRP's under the rule. These facilities meet the rule's substantial harm criteria
due to their potential to impact sensitive areas, including drinking water
intakes, or due to certain facility characteristics.
EPA has considered the physical, chemical, biological, and other properties and
environmental effects of petroleum oils, vegetable oils, and animal fats, which
are the criteria now to be evaluated under the Edible Oil Regulatory Reform Act.
EPA finds that petroleum oils, vegetable oils, and animal fats share common
physical properties and produce similar environmental effects. Like petroleum
oils, vegetable oils and animal fats and their constituents can:
Cause devastating physical effects,
such as coating animals and plants with oil and suffocating them by oxygen
Be toxic and form toxic products
Destroy future and existing food
supplies, breeding animals, and habitats
Produce rancid odors
Foul shorelines, clog water treatment
plants, and catch fire when ignition sources are present
Form products that linger in
the environment for many years.
Petitioners did not demonstrate that spills of animal fats and vegetable oils
are free of adverse impacts on the environment. Scientific research and
experience with actual spills have shown that spills of animal fats and
vegetable oils kill or injure fish, birds, mammals, and other species and
produce other undesirable effects. Waterfowl and other birds, mammals, and fish
that get coated with animal fats or vegetable oils could die of hypothermia,
dehydration and diarrhea, or starvation. They can also sink and drown or fall
victim to predators. Fish and other aquatic organisms may suffocate because of
the depletion of oxygen caused by spilled animal fats and vegetable oils in
water. Whether these oils are "toxic" to wildlife or kill wildlife
indirectly through other processes is not the issue. Spills of animal fats and
vegetable oils have the same or similar devastating impacts on the aquatic
environment as petroleum oils.
Bioremediation Products and Technology will resolve most of the cleanup
challenges in the environment today.
559.651.5050 - 8AM to 5PM Pacific - Monday thru Friday